Metagenomics and Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer globally. Dietary factors are paramount in both the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis. Surveys have demonstrated that about 80% of cases in the West could be attributed to diet. One reason that dietary factors are clinically important is that they alter the human microbiome: The human intestine is home to complex microbial species, including commensal or pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi, summing to a hundred-fifty time more genes than in our genome. Multiple studies have shown the different beneficial and harmful effects of the gut microbiome on cancer progressions, such as inducing epigenetic mechanisms or gene silencing. Therefore, the above evidence illustrates the research significance of post-microbiome interaction in our understanding of colorectal cancer at both a genetic and molecular level.